A new paper published in the journal Science suggests that the development of new vaccines against infectious diseases may have also contributed to the emergence of the deadly new strain of Zika virus that has been killing hundreds of thousands of people across the Americas.
The paper, by researchers from the University of Queensland in Australia, was authored by the researchers from WHO, the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The paper outlines how scientists have determined the role of developmental biology in the development and spread of many different strains of the Zika virus.
It argues that the emergence and spread in humans of the new strain, which has been called “Zika-like,” was caused by the evolution of genetic changes that occurred in the host cells of the virus, a process known as the transmissibility of genetic material.
Zika was first identified in 1947, but it was first detected in Brazil in 2009.
It has since been linked to a wave of birth defects in infants in Brazil, Colombia and elsewhere.
Scientists now know that many of the children born with the new virus were infected while pregnant, and many of them died as a result of the birth defects.
Scientists at the CDC and WHO are studying the link between Zika and the birth defect deaths.
The WHO is working on ways to track and monitor the spread of Zika in people living in regions where the virus has been circulating.
The virus can also be spread through sexual transmission, including through direct contact with the infected mosquito.
Scientists are also investigating the possibility that the virus could be transmitted by blood transfusion.
The new paper describes how scientists discovered the transmissible virus in a human cell line called a T cells-producing cell line.
Researchers isolated the virus from this line in a lab, then used genetic techniques to figure out which genetic changes in the line made it able to express its own genes, and which made it less able to do that.
These genetic changes led to the transmittable virus being able to be transmitted from person to person.
The research team also identified a different type of virus in this cell line, and showed that this type of viral infection, called a tropism, also can be transmitted through blood transfusions.
The new research suggests that, in this case, the transmissive virus could also have been a way for the virus to evade detection in the blood supply.
These new findings have important implications for the development, delivery and management of vaccines, said Dr. Christopher Bowers, an infectious diseases specialist at the University at Buffalo Medical Center in New York City, and a co-author of the paper.
“We are seeing this emerging model that we think of as the tropism,” Bowers said.
“And if it’s able to make it from cell to cell, it can also make it to people in the bloodstream.
And this is the first time that we’ve seen that this is possible.”
Bowers said this model can be useful for diagnosing and treating a number of diseases, including autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and HIV/AIDS.
The research team is also working on the possibility of developing vaccines that are immune to the tropisms that can be present in the human body, Bowers added.
The researchers did not, however, show that the transmitted virus could not be destroyed by vaccines.
“This paper shows that the transmission of transmissible viruses can occur in a variety of different cell types, so this model could be useful in identifying which cells are the most susceptible to viral suppression and then identifying which vaccines would be the most effective at stopping transmission,” said Dr, Thomas Wolk, a researcher at the Institute of Vaccine and Infection Research, a nonprofit organization in St. Louis, Missouri.
Wolk said that, based on the findings, the possibility for vaccines to prevent transmission is a “very real” one.