TechRadars article With a few notable exceptions, plants are pretty good at detecting different types of bacteria, but it can be tricky to know what species are causing the problem.
“A lot of different bacteria can cause different things in the same plant,” says Mark Hetland, a plant pathologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
One of these is a species called Prevotella species.
Prevotellae are very common in plants, but they can also cause disease in some people, so plants can often fail to detect it.
So Hetlands and colleagues were looking for a better way to distinguish between the bacteria that cause disease and those that don’t.
In the lab, they developed a model to do just that.
Using a protein called P. bifidum, which is found in bacteria, the team identified four bacterial groups that can cause diseases in plants: Prevotelli, Prevotela, P. cambium and Prevotrellae.
Each of these groups were also found to be associated with different types, and they all share one common trait: They all live in soil, meaning they’re attracted to plant debris.
They also spread to plants that have been contaminated by bacteria.
The team then tested the plants to see how different species reacted to the debris and found that they all behaved differently.
They found that P. caudatum, which normally lives in soil in some parts of the world, was the most diverse group.
It was also the most resistant to the bacterial infections.
But it was also more resistant to P. ceresis, which usually lives in plants in tropical regions.
In fact, the two bacteria are actually closely related.
“So we think that Pc. cereis and Pc./Prevotella cambicum may be more important than they seem at first,” says Hetlanders.
And that might be because of the way they live together in soil.
Both bacteria can live in a tight circle, in a symbiotic relationship.
“If we have a Pc., that P is the same P that we’re getting in our soil,” says Kevin Jaffe, a molecular geneticist at the State University of New York at Albany.
“We think this is how they’ve evolved to co-exist in soil.”
The findings were published today (June 6) in the journal Science Advances.
The bacteria that live in the soil can get into plants by a process called phagocytosis.
When these bacteria get inside the plant, they attach to the leaves and pull the cells apart, releasing toxins that trigger a response in the plant.
The plants immune system responds to the toxins by producing the growth hormone called IGF-1.
It is also a growth factor that can help plants grow.
The researchers found that the P.caudatum bacteria were more resistant than the Prevotelle bacteria to the growth-promoting effects of IGF-2, which can be found in many other soil-based organisms.
The result was that the bacteria were less responsive to IGF-II.
This could be because they live in high concentrations in soil than the bacteria in the control group, which only had lower concentrations.
The results could also be because the Prevotsella and P.ceresis bacteria have different functions, and therefore could be more resistant or more diverse.
But the researchers also think it’s possible that Pceresidaceae, the bacteria found in soil that doesn’t have a layer of debris, may be responsible for some of the differences between bacteria.
P.cambium can live up to 3 years in soil but doesn’t seem to be as responsive to environmental stressors.
Prevotsellae also live up as long as 1,000 years but have little response to soil stress.
Hetlander and his colleagues also have found that some of P.bifidium’s toxins are toxic to soil microbes.
It seems likely that these toxins are released from the bacteria themselves.
“This is something we can’t completely rule out,” says Jaffe.
But Heteland and his team suggest that these two groups might have different roles in the microbial ecosystem.
“It’s very hard to know whether the Pc/Prevotelles are a threat or a threat to the soil,” he says.
“But they could potentially be a threat in a way that Prevotelae aren’t.”
In addition to this study, the researchers now plan to investigate the bacteria and their metabolites in soil and see if there’s a correlation between the two.
They plan to do more work to determine the exact types of microbes that are causing these problems.
“There’s a lot of unknowns here,” says Meeghan O’Donnell, a microbial ecologist at Rutgers University who wasn’t involved in the study.
“Some of these bacteria are really interesting, but there’s so much more that we don’t know.”
The research was funded by